Again and again the data show that people of color in the U.S. are disproportionately, and systematically, stopped, frisked, arrested, and exposed to the use of force by police. Police departments and communities across the U.S. are struggling with these realities and with what has become a glaring divide in how Americans experience and relate to policing. This special collection includes research from nonprofits, foundations, and university based research centers, who have not only described and documented the issue but who also provide much-needed recommendations for addressing this chronic and tragic problem.

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Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department

March 4, 2015

This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department (FPD) that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law. The authors interviewed City officials, half of FPD's sworn officers, and  individuals who reside in Ferguson or who have had interactions with the police department. They reviewed over 35,000 pages of police records as well as thousands of emails and other electronic materials provided by the police department. The investigation contains analysis of FPD's data on stops, searches, citations, and arrests, as well as data collected by the municipal court.

Investigation of the Seattle Police Department

December 16, 2011

The authors engaged nationally recognized law enforcement professionals and a social scientist with expertise in biased policing. Their combined experience and knowledge have helped inform the findings of the investigation. These professionals conducted an independent analysis of Seattle Police Department (SPD) policies, use of force, other data, and community sentiments toward SPD. The investigation finds a pattern or practice of constitutional violations regarding the use of force that result from structural problems, as well as serious concerns about biased policing.